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Interpretation of National Compulsory Standard Technical Specifications for Printing and Dyeing Industry

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2015/07/02 18:20
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Textile products will inevitably come into contact with various chemicals in the production and processing process, especially printing and dyeing and finishing processing, as a typical chemical treatment process, will use a wide variety of dyes, auxiliaries, etc. These chemical materials are likely to contain or produce some harmful substances to the human body more or less, and the harmful substances remaining on textile products may cause harm to human health.
 
  The national compulsory standard-GB1840-12003 "National Basic Safety Technical Specifications for Textile Products" was formally implemented on January 1, 2005. Since mandatory national standards have the legal significance of mandatory enforcement, the formulation of this standard is based on the "Standardization Law of the People's Republic of China" and "Product Quality Law of the People's Republic of China", and must also comply with the rules of the game stipulated in the wto/TBT agreement . As only the basic safety technical requirements are involved, other product requirements shall be implemented in accordance with the corresponding standards. However, if the basic safety technical requirements for textile products in relevant standards and other technical documents do not meet the technical specifications, the specifications must prevail.
 
   The basic safety technical requirements for textile products put forward by this specification have 5 major items: formaldehyde content, pH value, color fastness, odor, and azo dyes that can reduce carcinogenic aromatic amines.
 
   The evaluation content of the above five major items as the basic safety technical requirements of textile products has been carefully considered. At present, some international textile ecological standards have been partially introduced into the international trade of textiles and garments. These standards have put forward specific requirements on the ecological safety performance of textiles and garments, either from the concept of the whole ecology or from the concept of partial ecology. At the same time, it has also formed a powerful external driving force for standardizing enterprise production and improving the technical level and competitiveness of enterprises.
 
   However, due to the imbalance in economic and technological development among countries or different regions in the world, these ecological standards have frequently been used as effective tools to build new trade barriers. According to the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, many current technical barriers to trade characterized by green are encouraged as a whole, but some obvious trade protectionist tendencies are subject to certain restrictions.
 
   At present, almost all textile ecological standards in the world are adopted voluntarily, and numerous limit control requirements are often adopted selectively. The basic safety technical specifications for textiles discussed in this article are compulsory national standards with a statutory nature. Therefore, their specific content must take into account the most basic safety requirements for the human body, as well as the current reality of my country’s textile industry. The level of technology, the current level of economic development in my country, and the actual consumption level of the people. At the same time, in accordance with WTO rules of the game, the mandatory regulations should treat domestic textile products or imported products equally, and cannot be a non-tariff trade protection measure that restricts imports in disguise. Therefore, the drafters of the specification determined the following four principles for selecting assessment items based on full consideration of various factors: one is to reflect the basic requirements of product safety performance; the other is to include the compulsory requirements in foreign regulations or standards. Sexual content; third, the evaluated items will have a significant impact on product quality; fourth, the selected items have reliable testing methods or methods.
 
Specific analysis of these five mandatory monitoring contents is not difficult to find that the content of formaldehyde and azo dyes that can reduce carcinogenic aromatic amines have actually become the most basic safety technical requirements in the current international textile and apparel trade. At this stage, almost all textiles and garments exported to Europe, America, Japan and other countries have been required to provide relevant inspection reports, and the European Union and Japan have also had relevant regulations to strictly control these two contents.
 
   As for the several color fastness indexes listed, whether at home or abroad, they must be tested for dyed textiles. Although there is no direct evidence to prove that color fastness and human health and safety have an inevitable causal relationship, good color fastness can undoubtedly minimize the possible harm to human health due to dyes falling off and transferring to human skin. risk. The requirements for pH and peculiar smell are the basic requirements for textile products, and it should not be too difficult technically to meet the standards. Therefore, taking these five items as mandatory monitoring targets has both scientific and reasonable basis and strong operability.
 
   As for the determination of specific assessment indicators, the following principles have been followed: as much as possible to be in line with international standards, as much as possible to be in line with existing national standards, with strong operability and consideration of the current level of technical and economic development of the textile industry in my country. Therefore, in some specific values ​​or assessment methods, there are some differences with the requirements of some foreign standards.
 
   As in the requirements of the color fastness test, it is stipulated that both staining and discoloration fastness shall be assessed at the same time, instead of only staining fastness as in some foreign standards. In addition, there are some differences in the requirements for color fastness levels. In addition, the detection limit requirement for carcinogenic aromatic amines in banned azo dyes is set at 20mg/g, which is based on the Oeko-Tex standard 100 limit requirement, which is inconsistent with the current EU directive 30mg/kg, which is in line with the existing The requirements of the GB standard are also different, and it is recommended that they be adjusted when the standard is revised in the future.